Studying to distinguish the refined nuances between 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく is likely to be one of many largest complications for Japanese learners. Not solely do they appear related, however they’ll all serve an identical goal, too: these grammar patterns describe a scenario created by some intentional motion completed prior to now. Regardless of their similarities, every sample emphasizes or implies one thing completely different, equivalent to an motion being completed in preparation of one thing, or remaining within the state the motion created.
To illustrate you often depart the window open at night time to let in some cool air. To inform somebody about this behavior, you should utilize both 〜ている, 〜てある, or 〜ておく and say:
- いつも夜は窓を開け [ている・てある・ておく] 。
- I often maintain the window open at night time.
See how all of them describe the state of the open window, which was created by the motion of you opening the window? In that manner, the three expressions can work very equally.
However what precisely is the distinction between these expressions, and the way would you select which one to make use of? The additional nuance that is implied by every is mirrored within the translations under, so test them out to see what every sentence sounds wish to a local speaker.
- I often maintain the window open at night time.
- I often maintain the window open at night time (so it will not get too sizzling).
- I often maintain the window open at night time (in order that I will not have to fret about getting too sizzling and waking up in the course of the night time).
So you may see there are some refined variations within the nuance right here. However don’t fret if the excellence remains to be a bit hazy. The excellent news is that 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく aren’t all the time interchangeable. (A minimum of, we hope that is excellent news.) Just like the earlier instance sentences, every sample has its personal set of implications, making it higher suited to sure conditions than the others. This text will assist you to study extra about these fundamental distinctions, so you can perceive the refined variations in nuance within the makes use of that overlap each other.
Stipulations: This text assumes you already know hiragana and katakana. If it’s good to brush up, take a look at our Final Hiragana Information and Final Katakana Information. Though this text begins with a fundamental rationalization of every grammatical sample, you might also need to take a look at our grammar pages on 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく for a extra detailed background rationalization on every expression, as this text focuses extra on deeper nuances. Moreover, information about transitive and intransitive verbs is a plus, since we’ll even be discussing transitivity with a purpose to clarify the variations between 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく.
The Primary Ideas of 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく
Let’s start by evaluating the essential ideas of 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく. We’ll get to some examples in a while, however listed here are the basic ideas behind every sample:
〜ている:When linked to a verb, this expresses an ongoing motion or a steady state initiated by an motion prior to now.
〜てある:When linked to a verb, this describes the present state of one thing whereas typically hinting that the scenario was beforehand devised deliberately.
〜ておく:When connected to a verb, this means the motion is taken to finish a activity in preparation for one thing, with a purpose to “put” (the verb 置くmeans “to place”) it out of your thoughts. Relying on the tense, it might confer with an motion you are going to take or have already taken. It could actually additionally denote the state of issues after finishing a activity.
The important thing variations between the three are the nuance, the extent of intention, and whether or not the main focus is on the motion itself, or a scenario that’s the results of that motion. We’ll be discussing all these key variations all through the article, so don’t fret in case you are not getting it simply but.
Subsequent, let’s take a more in-depth have a look at how every sample works whereas making use of the ideas famous above.
〜ている is the plainest and most impartial of the three patterns. It has two features: it might describe a steady motion, or a state which is the results of a earlier motion. A technique to think about it’s as expressing a kind of “activation mode.” What 〜ている does is specific an ongoing scenario that is “activated” by one thing that occurred or that has began occurring. Let’s check out some examples of ～ている to see the way it works.
Describing Issues Which are At the moment Taking place
First, let’s rapidly go over how one can use 〜ている to speak about one thing that is at present occurring. For instance, say you are working within the kitchen and your child is available in to ask what you are doing. On this situation, you would possibly say:
- I am making bento proper now.
This expression works equally to the current steady ( -ing ) in English, which exhibits that an motion is occurring similtaneously it is being spoken about.
Right here, 〜ている is used to point that you’re within the strategy of “making a bento.” The implication is that it is nonetheless underway, however you’ve got already began the method. You began cooking, and so the act of cooking has been activated.
Additionally bear in mind that particle を is usually omitted in dialog, however we’ll maintain it on this article in order that the sentence construction is simpler to grasp.
That is the most typical perform of 〜ている, however when used like this it might’t get replaced with 〜てある or 〜ておく.
Describing the Ensuing State Activated by a Previous Motion
Along with describing one thing that is at present occurring, 〜ている may also be used to explain a scenario or situation that’s the product of a previous motion or occasion. On this use, 〜ている typically features like an adjective as a result of it is used to explain the best way one thing is.
To illustrate your child finds a bento field that is been left on the kitchen counter with the lid open. They inform you:
- The bento lid is open.
Discover that 〜ている is used in another way from the earlier instance. 開く is an intransitive verb which means “to open,” however on this sentence the 〜ている type it means “to be open,” fairly than “opening.”
〜ている typically features like an adjective as a result of it is used to explain the best way one thing is.
It’s because the verb 開く often signifies an instantaneous change. As soon as the lid has begun to be opened, the “opened state” of the lid is “activated.” With verbs that change the state of one thing instantaneously like 開く, utilizing the 〜ている type permits you to describe the state of one thing that resulted from the change as an alternative of an ongoing motion.
Why? As a result of with an intransitive verb like 開く, there isn’t any implication past the bento lid being open. It solely describes the bento lid being open, whereas not specializing in who carried out the motion. Bear in mind, 〜てある and 〜ておく all the time indicate that there’s intention or goal behind the motion being described. So with out this implication, you may’t swap 〜てある or 〜ておく for 〜ている on this instance.
Describing the Ensuing State Activated by an “Intentional” Motion
Within the earlier part we lined that when used with an intransitive verb, 〜ている is not essentially interchangeable with 〜てある/〜ておく. It’s because with intransitive verbs there isn’t any indication of the motion being described as intentional. However how a couple of transitive verb? Let’s check out one other instance, persevering with the bento situation.
Suppose you are leaving the bento lid open on goal. However since your child is commenting on it being open, you need to inform them that it was deliberately left open in order that they do not shut it. So that you say:
- I am leaving the lid open!
Right here, discover the verb is 開ける, which suggests “to open one thing” — the transitive model of 開く that you just noticed earlier. With 〜ている, this sentence might imply you are “opening the lid” if that is what you might be at present doing — i.e. your hand is on the lid and about to take away it — nevertheless it’s clearly not the scenario right here. Reasonably, this can be a response to the query in regards to the lid that is already been opened, so it describes the bento field being left open, which resulted out of your previous intentional motion of opening the bento and leaving it that manner.
You might need additionally observed wanting intently on the instance that the expression used is てる as an alternative of 〜ている. It is not a typo — each varieties are grammatically appropriate. 〜ている is often shortened in informal conversations.
Out of the three makes use of of 〜ている, that is the one one which can be utilized interchangeably with 〜てある or 〜ておく (or fairly 〜ておいた, the previous tense). Which means you may additionally use 〜てある or 〜ておく to clarify that you just deliberately opened the lid and left it that manner, like this:
フタ、開け [てある・ておいた] んだよ！
Why? The brief reply is that this use of 〜ている implies an “intention” and you’ll inform that by the context. We’ll get right into a deeper comparability of ～ている, ～てある, and ～ておく in a bit, so for now, simply take into account that this very particular use of ～ている is the one one that may be interchangeable with the opposite two.
〜てある signifies that the scenario was triggered deliberately, typically for a specific goal.
Now on to 〜てある. To begin with, 〜てある describes the present state of one thing with the implication that somebody did one thing to it earlier and left it that manner. That “somebody” can both be your self or another person, relying on the particle that precedes it.
It is also essential to notice that 〜てある is all the time used with a transitive verb, as a result of a transitive verb is a kind of verb that signifies an intentional motion.
〜を〜てある for a State of affairs Brought on by Your self
As I briefly talked about, 〜てある can be utilized when describing a scenario that resulted from both your individual or another person’s motion. And there is a straightforward technique to differentiate between the 2: every makes use of a unique particle.
Earlier than we actually get into the mechanics of issues, let’s circle again to utilizing 〜てある to explain a scenario that is the results of your individual motion. Bear in mind the bento instance from earlier? We talked about that you should utilize 〜てある to clarify that you just opened the bento field and are leaving it open, like this:
- I am leaving the lid of the bento field open.
Though を can typically be omitted in spoken Japanese, this 〜を〜てある sample is the construction used when speaking a couple of scenario brought on by your self.
On this instance, を marks the lid as the article of the sentence. Which means that the seemingly topic, though not clearly acknowledged, is the speaker, or 私 which means “I,” which may be understood from the context.
Let’s stick with it the bento-making situation for one more instance. Attempting to think about one thing that may pair properly with the bento for dessert, you do not forget that you got some yogurt to have readily available for an event like this. On this case, you should utilize 〜てある and say to your self:
- There’s some yogurt (as a result of I purchased some).
Bear in mind which you can additionally use 〜ている or 〜ておく to specific one thing related. We’ll speak about this in additional element in a while.
〜が〜てある For a State of affairs Brought on by Somebody Else
One distinctive side of 〜てある is how it may be used to explain a scenario that is brought on by another person.
Take for instance a scenario that is barely completely different from the earlier one — you come throughout some yogurt within the fridge when searching for a dessert for the bento. However on this case, you might be not the one who purchased it. You would possibly say one thing like:
- There’s some yogurt (that somebody will need to have purchased)!
What 〜てある is doing right here is describing that the yogurt is within the fridge, whereas additionally implying that somebody (not you) purchased it earlier. Whereas the sentences are almost similar, the distinction is in using particles.
This would possibly really feel tough, however this is a tip. Take into consideration ある on the finish because the verb used for non-living issues’ existence. The verb ある pairs up with が and signifies “there may be…” proper? So ヨーグルトがある means “there’s some yogurt,” and that is simply describing what’s there objectively. ヨーグルトが買ってある is just like this, nevertheless it simply provides the implication that the motion (“yogurt was purchased,” on this case) was carried out by somebody moreover you.
Similar to 〜がある, you might be describing the scenario kind of objectively as a result of you weren’t concerned within the motion — another person was. And identical to ある typically expresses the sense of realization when it is paired with the topic marker が, 〜てある carries the nuance that you just got here to a realization, too. So ヨーグルトが買ってある hints that it was a shock to you (and it was a pleasant one).
And identical to ある typically expresses the sense of realization when it is paired with the topic marker が, 〜てある carries the nuance that you just got here to a realization, too.
To summarize, 〜てある can take the particle が to mark one thing that is seemingly an object (“yogurt,” on this case) though it’s used with a transitive verb. And when it does that, it implies that somebody aside from you carried out the motion that resulted within the state it describes. That is one thing distinctive to 〜てある, and what makes it completely different from 〜ている and 〜ておく. In different phrases, ヨーグルトが買っている or ヨーグルトが買っておく aren’t legitimate sentences — really, these sound like yogurt is the topic who’s shopping for (one thing). It might be tremendous bizarre until the particular person’s title was Yogurt (which will surely be a twist).
〜ておく can serve two features relying on the tense. Within the current tense, apparently you might be finishing a activity for future comfort so as to “put” it out of your thoughts. However, prior to now tense, 〜ておいた denotes the state of a accomplished activity.
ておく For Future Actions To Full Duties
Particularly used within the current tense, 〜ておく is a little bit completely different from the opposite two patterns mentioned thus far. Whereas 〜ている and 〜てある can be utilized to explain the present state of issues, 〜ておく signifies a future motion. Particularly, the long run completion of a activity so you may “put” it out of your thoughts.
For instance, should you’re at present within the course of of creating a bento and determine to depart the lid off to let some steam out, you should utilize 〜ておく and say:
- I am going to depart the lid of the bento field open (to let the steam out so I will not have to fret about it getting musty and spoiling).
It is a slight distinction that is essential to notice right here between utilizing 〜ておく within the current tense and the earlier examples with 〜ていく and 〜てある. The place they have been used to explain a scenario the place a bento field is left open deliberately, right here 〜ておく is indicating your (very close to) future plan of leaving the lid open.
You are utilizing 〜ておく since you need to specific that you just’re doing this in your future comfort.
On this case, you need to let the steam out to stop it from getting musty contained in the bento field.
You is likely to be questioning “Why does 〜ておく point out a future motion, not the present state of one thing like 〜ている and 〜てある?” Nicely, it’d assist should you consider it like this. 〜ておく comes from the verb 置く which means “to place.” Similar to another motion verb, when used within the current tense, it might point out a future motion, along with a basic act or a behavior.
Compared, take into consideration 〜ている and 〜てある, and their roots — the verbs いる and ある. These verbs are a bit particular, differing barely from common motion verbs in that they point out the existence of issues, or describe the best way issues are fairly than one thing that wants “doing.” Hopefully, that helps you higher perceive how 〜ておく works within the current tense.
Now, let’s check out one other instance. Say you are on the grocery retailer to purchase yogurt in your bento. You should use 〜ておく and say:
- I am going to purchase some yogurt (so as to add to my bento).
Right here, 〜ておく carries the nuance that you will do one thing with a purpose to “get it completed,” or out of the best way. And once more, notice that it is the future motion or plan that you’re utilizing 〜ておく to explain.
ておいた For Accomplished Duties
To this point, we have mentioned the variations within the nuance of 〜ておく within the current tense to speak a couple of future motion. Now let’s check out the way it’s used prior to now tense (〜ておいた) to speak a couple of present scenario that’s the direct results of an motion carried out prior to now, i.e. one thing you took care of prior to now that resulted within the current state of issues.
Let’s carry again the earlier instance of leaving the bento field lid open. To say you left it open, it’s good to conjugate 〜ておく to the previous tense and say :
- I left the lid of the bento field open (to let the steam out so I will not have to fret about it getting musty and spoiling).
On this case, the main focus is extra in your previous motion (opening the lid), however it might additionally point out the present state ensuing from the motion (the lid is left open), relying on the context.
Now, do not forget that yogurt from earlier than? If you wish to point out that there is some yogurt for the bento since you purchased it earlier for that goal, you should utilize 〜ておいた and say:
- I’ve purchased some yogurt (for bento making).
Though these conditions may be described in an identical method utilizing 〜ている or 〜てある, let’s not overlook the particular nuance of 〜ておいた — it all the time implies that you just carried out an motion with the intention of inflicting the present scenario since you wished to get one thing out of the best way. On this case, possibly you felt you wanted to have a backup bento filler and to serve the aim you got some yogurt. So this stresses that you just purchased the yogurt in preparation for the long run. In consequence, out of the three patterns 〜ておいた most strongly implies your intention behind the motion.
ておく For Recurring Actions To Full Duties
Earlier, we talked about how 〜ておく can be utilized to explain a future motion, however that is not the one factor 〜ておく can specific within the current tense. In truth, relying on the context it may also be used to specific a recurring motion. Bear in mind, the basis of 〜ておく is the motion verb 置く (“to place”), and motion verbs when used within the current tense can specific a basic act or behavior of doing one thing, not solely a future motion. Let’s check out yet one more instance of ～ておく within the current tense, bringing again the primary instance on this article, the window:
- I often maintain the window open at night time.
As you noticed beforehand on this instance, ～ている, ～てある, and ～ておく can be utilized interchangeably within the current tense to explain a recurring motion or one thing you do recurrently for a motive. Nevertheless, there are refined variations in nuance between them.
Of the three, 〜ておく is definitely essentially the most nuanced — it implies that you just did one thing in your future comfort. On this case, possibly you retain the window open so you will not have to fret about getting too sizzling and waking up in the course of the night time. Or, possibly as a result of your youngsters fantasize about Peter Pan coming by the window and taking them to Neverland.
Regardless of the motive, 〜ておく implies that no matter you are describing is one thing you need to get out of the best way.
In spite of everything, you do not need your youngsters waking you up in the course of the night time and complaining that you just did not depart the window open for Peter Pan, you recognize?
Now that we have lined all of the fundamentals, within the subsequent part we’ll take a deeper have a look at how the nuance adjustments with every sample relying on the scenario.
So…What is the Distinction In Conditions When They’re All Interchangeable?
Now let’s lastly get into the comparisons of the three patterns: 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく. As a fast overview, they’re primarily interchangeable when used to explain the present state of one thing that resulted from a previous motion (often one thing intentional).
So, what precisely is the distinction in these conditions once they can be utilized interchangeably? Let’s discover out by going by a number of examples and evaluating the nuances.
Completely different Ranges of Intention
expresses intention much less < expresses intention extra
One of many major variations in nuance between 〜ている (or fairly, its shortened model てる), 〜てある, and 〜ておく is the extent of intention.
For the primary instance, let’s return to bento once more. Say that you just’re cooking (or have cooked) rice as a result of it is an important aspect of bento.
ご飯を 炊い [てる・てある・ておいた] 。
Damaged down, ご飯 is “rice,” and the verb paired with it which means “to prepare dinner” is 炊く. So what precisely is the distinction in nuance after we use every completely different sample?
Let’s check out ご飯を 炊いてる. This sentence can really be interpreted in a few methods. The primary is:
- I am cooking rice.
This is likely one of the doable translations — the current steady use of 〜ている to clarify what you are at present doing — means you might be in the course of cooking rice. (Word that 〜てある and 〜ておく can’t be used to specific an motion that’s at present underway.)
The opposite doable which means of this sentence is:
- The rice is cooked.
Do not forget that 〜ている can even denote the ensuing state of an motion, i.e. the state of the rice that’s already cooked. So how are you aware when it means what? That can rely upon the context of the dialog. Say your child requested a sandwich for lunch, and also you say this to inform them that you just already made rice. (Too late, kiddo!) That is when 〜ている is interchangeable with 〜てある or 〜ておいた.
When it comes to intention, 炊く is a transitive verb, and “rice being cooked” will not occur by itself (somebody’s gotta prepare dinner rice, you recognize?) so technically talking there may be some implication of this right here. Nevertheless, in comparison with the opposite two patterns, 〜ている does not emphasize the intentional nuance as a lot. So this model with 〜ている sounds such as you’re simply merely stating that you just cooked the rice and the rice is prepared.
Now, what about 炊いてある? As a fast reminder, 〜てある describes a scenario the place you probably did one thing and also you left it that manner for a motive.
- The rice is cooked (for a motive).
In comparison with 〜ている, the 〜てある model has a stronger and clearer indication of the intention behind the scenario being described, as in case you are saying, “I cooked rice for a motive.” This model is often used once you need to draw consideration to one thing you’ve got completed and particularly left that manner. In different phrases, this nearly feels like a heads-up or the explanation for issues being the best way they’re.
The explanation may very well be for making onigiri, or no matter different motive you would possibly prepare dinner rice. Implying that there is a motive for it naturally provides a extra intentional nuance, particularly in comparison with 〜ている. In that sense, this might make a good stronger assertion to your child who requested a sandwich on the final minute.
Lastly, 〜ておいた carries the strongest stage of intention. To remind you, 〜ておく mainly signifies the act of doing one thing for future comfort.
- I cooked the rice (for future comfort).
So this sentence sounds such as you cooked the rice to make issues straightforward later. Now, remember, 〜ておく additionally offers off the vibe of doing one thing upfront so you may put it out of your thoughts — such as you’re going forward and marking a activity off of your to-do checklist. It is a very nuanced expression!
〜ておく additionally offers off the vibe of doing one thing upfront so you may put it out of your thoughts — such as you’re going forward and marking a activity off of your to-do checklist.
Perhaps you began cooking the rice very first thing within the morning. It takes a while for rice to prepare dinner, and it’ll take a while for it to chill down so you may pack it within the bento. As soon as your youngsters get up, you won’t get an opportunity to rinse the rice and begin the rice cooker. So, fascinated by the precise course of, it is smart to prepare dinner it sooner fairly than later so you will not have to fret about it not being prepared in time.
You might by no means have on condition that a lot thought to the logistics of cooking rice, or possibly it is already a stable routine of yours, however on this sense 〜ておく implies that you just had a thought course of and there was some kind of planning concerned. This provides extra of the “intention” nuance in comparison with the opposite two patterns.
What’s extra, with 〜ておく the main focus is definitely in your motion fairly than the ensuing scenario — we’ll speak extra about this within the following part. This sample stresses your contribution, whereas the opposite two spotlight the truth that rice is cooked. So utilizing 〜ておく emphasizes your intention barely greater than 〜てある and might even sound a little bit extra braggy, such as you’re implying, “I did this in your comfort, okay?”
State of affairs-Centered vs Motion-Centered
One other level of distinction is whether or not the emphasis is on the motion, or the ensuing state or scenario brought on by that motion. You might need observed the slight distinction within the earlier instance translations — “the rice is cooked” and “I cooked the rice.” Technically talking, this finally is dependent upon the context, however figuring out the place the emphasis lies for every sample ought to assist you to get the gist of the variations in nuance a little bit higher.
Mainly, the principle distinction is that 〜てある focuses on the results of the motion (“the rice is cooked”) whereas 〜ておく focuses on the motion itself (“I cooked the rice”), and 〜ている is kind of impartial and will concentrate on both relying on the context.
situation-focused ⇔ action-focused
This is an instance to elaborate on what this implies. To illustrate you place strawberries within the bento as a result of that is your child’s favourite fruit. To ship this excellent news, you should utilize any of the three: 〜ている (or its shortened, extra natural-sounding model 〜てる), 〜てある, or 〜ておく:
お弁当にいちごを入れ [てる・てある・ておいた] よ！
Now let’s check out how every of those patterns can have a barely completely different nuanced which means.
〜てある (State of affairs-Centered)
- There are strawberries within the bento (since you like strawberries)!
The foundation verb ある means “to exist,” so it is used to explain the best way issues are fairly than the motion that triggered the scenario.
Right here, 〜てある is describing the scenario, fairly than the motion that triggered it. In different phrases, it describes the state of the strawberries being within the bento. It is calling specific consideration to the strawberries, so the implication of you placing them there takes a again seat to the strawberries themselves on this case.
Now, you is likely to be questioning about 〜ている as a result of its root verb additionally means “to exist.” It could actually actually be situation-focused, however we additionally want to consider how 〜ている can be used to confer with an motion, particularly steady motion. We’ll speak extra about this within the following part.
〜ている (Motion-Centered/State of affairs-Centered)
- I’m placing strawberries within the bento!
There are strawberries within the bento!
〜ている may be each situation-focused and action-focused, and the main focus varies relying on the context. It’s because 〜ている has two main features — one which emphasizes the motion itself (steady motion), and one which focuses on the scenario brought on by the motion (ensuing state). On this specific instance, 〜ている can point out the “motion,” equivalent to what you are at present doing (“I am placing strawberries in as we converse”), or the state the place “strawberries are within the bento.”
We talked about that the main focus of 〜ておく is on the motion itself, which on this case is “placing strawberries within the bento.”
- I put strawberries within the bento (as a result of I do know you will take pleasure in them)!
Which means that 〜ておく is used to speak about an motion taken with the intention of making a sure scenario, whereas 〜ている and 〜てある describe the scenario that is brought on by the motion.
〜ておく is used to speak about an motion taken with the intention of making a sure scenario
It is likely to be good to think about this from the viewpoint of the basis verb 置く(to place) as nicely. 置く is an motion verb, or a verb that signifies an motion — “placing.” Against this, the verbs いる and ある are stative verbs which means “to exist.” There isn’t any specific motion concerned; they merely point out the state of one thing. This would possibly assist you to do not forget that 〜ておく is extra “action-focused” whereas the opposite two are “situation-focused,” describing how issues are as the results of the motion.
Speaking About Your Habits
Like we talked about earlier within the instance about retaining the window open at night time, 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく can be utilized interchangeably to speak about your habits. So let’s check out the ultimate nuance, evaluating the three patterns when speaking about habits, after which overview what you’ve got realized thus far.
Say you are on the park speaking to a different dad or mum whereas your youngsters are enjoying. But it surely’s awkward. You want some excuse to depart so that you casually drop in one thing about your day by day schedule and say:
- いつも、６時にはお風呂をわかし [てる・てある・ておく] んだ。
- I often have the bathtub prepared by 6 p.m.
Once more, all three patterns are interchangeable right here, however with a really slight distinction in nuance between 〜ておく and 〜てある. Oh, and spot that 〜ておく is just not prior to now tense right here nevertheless it works fantastic since you’re speaking a couple of basic behavior. Now, let’s take a more in-depth have a look at how every one works.
- I often have the bathtub prepared by 6 p.m.
I often run a sizzling bathtub by 6 p.m.
In the identical vein as describing what you are at present doing, 〜ている may also be used to explain your habits, as a result of a behavior is one thing you do usually (not simply an motion happening within the present second). On this case, it is also describing the ensuing state of the bathtub being prepared by 6 p.m., so it is interchangeable with 〜てある and 〜ておく.
〜ている may also be used to explain your habits, as a result of a behavior is one thing you do usually
Bear in mind how 〜ている may be situation-focused and action-focused? This specific instance really feels a bit obscure by way of the main focus as a result of it is a mixture of each: 〜ている describing a recurring motion in addition to the ensuing scenario. In that sense, this sentence leaves it unclear whether or not you begin operating sizzling water by 6 p.m. otherwise you have it prepared by 6 p.m. — It may very well be interpreted in each methods.
And, how else is that this use of 〜ている completely different from the opposite two? This 〜ている model is solely explaining your behavior of getting the bathtub prepared by 6 p.m. Descriptive and easy, there’s not a lot further nuance to it in comparison with the opposite two.
- I often have the bathtub prepared by 6 p.m. (for a motive).
Right here, 〜てある is describing the day by day scenario that you just often have the bathtub prepared and crammed by 6 p.m. As a result of 〜てある is situation-focused, fairly than action-focused, the emphasis on this instance is on the bathtub and it being prepared and sizzling. It additionally implies that there is a specific motive, which is likely to be sort of apparent on this case — for you or your loved ones to take a shower. Perhaps you may have it prepared by 6 p.m. since you wish to take a shower after dinner. Or possibly to let your pet capybaras soak and swim in it. Who is aware of, however 〜てある implies you probably did it for a motive.
- I often have the bathtub prepared by 6 p.m. (so I will not have to fret in regards to the bathtub not being prepared by the point somebody wants it).
〜ておく right here is describing your recurring motion of operating the bathtub and having it prepared by 6 p.m., emphasizing that you just accomplish that in your future comfort. Bear in mind, 〜ておく is action-focused so it places an emphasis on the motion you carry out.
The nuance of 〜ておく is that you just carry out the motion so that you’re completed with the duty and you’ll put it out of your thoughts. Perhaps your companion comes house at 6:01 and takes a shower at 6:02 each day. You’d need to mark off this activity of your to-dos in order that you do not fear about messing up their day by day schedule by any likelihood.
Beginning a New Behavior
We might in all probability put together 100 extra examples that can assist you grasp the nuanced variations between 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく, however for now let’s depart it right here so you may put it apart and course of what you realized.
Hopefully, you may have a good suggestion of how all three varieties differ, and the implications behind utilizing them to speak about one thing you are at present doing or do recurrently, the present state of issues, or one thing you ready upfront in your future comfort.
Like many phrases in Japanese, quite a bit can rely upon the context. However the extra you apply, the extra progress you will make in mastering these varieties!